Environmental assessments

The Government of Canada is undertaking a review of environmental and regulatory processes. Visit canada.ca/environmentalreviews to get involved and share your views.

Protecting the environment is an important part of the work at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC).

The CNSC assesses the environmental effects of all nuclear facilities or activities at every phase of their lifecycle. This assessment is based on the scale and complexity of the environmental risks associated with the facility or activity.

The CNSC carries out EAs under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012 (an EA under the CEAA 2012) or under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (an EA under the NSCA). Early in the process, CNSC staff determine which EA applies by reviewing the information provided by the applicant or licensee in their application and supporting documentation.

The CNSC ensures that the public has an opportunity to participate in the EA, and Aboriginal consultation activities are integrated in the EA process to the extent possible. Learn how you can participate in an EA.

Additional information on the CNSC’s EA process can be found in the draft REGDOC-2.9.1, Environmental Protection: Environmental Policy, Assessments And Protection Measures.

See the list of ongoing EAs

See the list of completed EAs

See the list of cancelled EAs

Environmental assessments under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA)

Under the NSCA, one of the CNSC’s key responsibilities is protection of the environment. To meet this responsibility, the CNSC requires the potential environmental effects of all nuclear facilities or activities to be considered and evaluated when licensing decisions are made. For an EA under the NSCA, CNSC staff will review information to inform the Commission’s determination on whether the applicant or licensee will make adequate provision for the protection of the environment and the health of persons while carrying on a licensed activity.

An EA under the NSCA is primarily based on information that the applicant or licensee is required to submit to the CNSC through the established licensing process, such as the licence application and its supporting documentation, and information on environmental protection measures. An EA under the NSCA may also be supported by additional information from research, annual environmental monitoring reports, environmental risk assessments, the CNSC’s independent environmental monitoring program (IEMP), and the CNSC’s compliance verification activities.

Environmental assessments under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012

An EA under the CEAA 2012 is a planning and decision-making tool. Its objectives are to minimize or avoid adverse environmental effects before they occur, and incorporate environmental factors into decision making. An EA under the CEAA 2012 is conducted early in the licensing process (before any licence is granted) and considers the entire proposed lifecycle of a project. It includes information prepared by the applicant and CNSC staff, as well as comments received from Aboriginal groups and the public.

The CNSC has developed Generic Guidelines for the Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012. The purpose of this document is to inform proponents of the information requirements for the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for a project that requires an EA under the CEAA 2012. An EIS is a report written by a proponent that presents the technical studies and findings of an EA.

Environmental assessments under land claim agreements

In many parts of northern Canada (e.g., Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, parts of Quebec and parts of Newfoundland and Labrador), EA processes established under land claim agreements apply, and the CEAA 2012 does not. In these areas, the CNSC acts as a technical advisor throughout the EA process and has no role in the EA decision. However, the Commission retains decision making on licensing matters, and uses the information gathered in the EA process to inform its licensing decision under the NSCA. When multiple jurisdictions are involved, these processes are harmonized as much as possible to reduce duplication and promote efficiency.